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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Computer Basics

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Prologue to Information Technology fuses the significant changes that have occurred in the field of data innovation, including the most recent patterns as well as future advancements.

The inclusion of down to earth and notable points of view on data innovation exhibits.

How ideas are connected to genuine frameworks and demonstrate their advancement since its beginnings.

Written in a reasonable, succinct and clear way, every section is intended to be shrouded in a few addresses while keeping between part conditions to a base.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. Preface

01 Computer Basics

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Characteristics of Computers

1.2 Evolution of Computers

1.3 Generations of Computers

1.3.1 First Generation (1940 to 1956): Vacuum Tubes

1.3.2 Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Transistors

1.3.3 Third Generation (1964 to Early 1970s): Integrated Circuits

1.3.4 Fourth Generation (Early 1970s to Till Date): Microprocessors

1.3.5 Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond): Artificial Intelligence

1.4 Classification of Computers

1.4.1 Microcomputers

1.4.2 Minicomputers

1.4.3 Mainframes

1.4.4 Supercomputers

1.5 The Computer System

1.5.1 Components of a Computer System

1.5.2 How Does a Computer Work?

1.6 Applications of Computers

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02. Computer Organization and Architecture

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Central Processing Unit

2.2.1 Arithmetic/Logic Unit

2.2.2 Registers

2.2.3 Control Unit

2.2.4 System Bus

2.2.5 Main Memory Unit

2.2.6 Cache Memory

2.3 Communication among Various Units

2.3.1 Processor to Memory Communication

2.3.2 Processor—I/O Devices Communication

2.4 Instruction Format

2.5 Instruction Cycle

2.6 Instruction Set

2.6.1 CISC Architecture

2.6.2 RISC Architecture

2.6.3 Comparing the CISC with RISC

2.7 Inside a Computer

2.7.1 Power Supply (SMPS)

2.7.2 Motherboard

2.7.3 Ports and Interfaces

2.7.4 Expansion Cards

2.7.5 Ribbon Cables

2.7.6 Memory Chips

2.7.7 Storage Devices

2.7.8 Processors

2.8 Data Representation in Computers

2.8.1 Types of Number System

2.8.2 Conversion between Number Bases

2.9 Coding Schemes

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03 Computer Memory and Storage

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Memory Representation

3.2 Memory Hierarchy

3.3 Random Access Memory

3.3.1 Types of RAM

3.4 Read Only Memory

3.4.1 Types of ROM

3.5 RAM, ROM and CPU Interaction

3.6 Types of Secondary Storage Devices

3.7 Magnetic Tape

3.7.1 Magnetic Tape Organization

3.7.2 Advantages of Magnetic Tapes

3.7.3 Disadvantages of Magnetic Tapes

3.8 Magnetic Disk

3.8.1 Storage Organization of a Magnetic Disk

3.8.2 Accessing Data from Magnetic Disk

3.9 Types of Magnetic Disks

3.9.1 Floppy Disk

3.9.2 Hard Disk

3.9.3 Zip Disk

3.9.4 Advantages of Magnetic Disks

3.9.5 Disadvantages of Magnetic Disks

3.10 Optical Disk

3.10.1 Storage Organization of Optical Disk

3.10.2 Access Mechanism of Optical Disk

3.11 Types of Optical Disks

3.11.1 Compact Disk

3.11.2 Digital Versatile Disk

3.11.3 Blu-beam Disk

3.11.4 Advantages of Optical Disks

3.11.5 Disadvantages of Optical Disks

3.12 Magneto-optical Storage Devices

3.12.1 Basics of MO Reading

3.12.2 Basics of MO Recording

3.13 Universal Serial Bus

3.13.1 Pen Drive

3.13.2 External Hard Disk Drive

3.14 Memory Stick

3.15 Mass Storage Devices

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04 Input Output Media

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Importance of Input/Output Devices

4.2 Types of Input Devices

4.2.1 Keyboard

4.2.2 Pointing Devices

4.2.3 Speech Recognition

4.2.4 Digital Camera

4.2.5 Webcam

4.2.6 Scanners

4.2.7 Optical Character Recognition

4.2.8 Optical Mark Recognition

4.2.9 Magnetic-ink Character Recognition

4.2.10 Bar Code Reader

4.3 Types of Output Devices

4.3.1 Printers

4.3.2 Plotters

4.3.3 Computer Output Microfilm

4.3.4 Monitor

4.3.5 Voice Response System

4.3.6 Projector

4.3.7 Electronic Whiteboard

4.3.8 Headphone and Headset

4.4 Computer Terminals

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05 Operating System

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Operating System: Definition

5.3 Evolution of Operating System

5.4 Types of Operating Systems

5.5 Functions of an Operating System

5.5.1 Process Management

5.5.2 Memory Management

5.5.3 File Management

5.5.4 Device Management

5.5.5 Security Management

5.5.6 User Interface

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06 Microsoft Windows XP

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Features of Windows XP

6.3 Starting Windows XP Professional

6.4 The Desktop

6.4.1 Taskbar

6.4.2 Customizing Taskbar

6.4.3 Desktop Icons

6.4.4 Customizing the Desktop

6.5 My Computer

6.6 Working with Files and Folders

6.6.1 Recycle Bin

6.7 Windows Explorer

6.8 Windows Help and Support Center

6.9 Searching in Windows XP

6.10 System Utilities in Windows XP

6.11 Control Panel

6.12 Windows Accessories

6.12.1 Calculator

6.12.2 Notepad

6.12.3 Paint

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07 Overview of Microsoft Windows 7

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Different Editions of Windows 7

7.3 New Style of Windows 7

7.3.1 Aero Themes

7.3.2 Gadgets

7.3.3 Taskbar

7.3.4 Start Menu

7.3.5 Aero Effects

7.3.6 Jump Lists

7.4 Windows 7 Accessories

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